Meditation is a practice where an individual uses a technique — such as mindfulnessor focusing the mind on a particular object, thought, or activity — to train attention and awareness, and achieve a mentally clear and emotionally calm and stable state. Meditation has been practiced since BCE antiquity in numerous religious traditions, often as part of the path towards enlightenment and self realization.
The earliest records of meditation Dhyana come from the Hindu traditions of Vedantismand meditation has a long tradition of being a practice in Hinduism. Meditation may be used with the aim of reducing stress, anxiety, depression, and pain, and increasing peace, perception,  self-conceptand well-being.
The English meditation is derived from Old French meditaciounin turn from Latin meditatio from a verb meditarimeaning "to think, contemplate, devise, ponder". Meditation has proven difficult to define as it covers a wide range of dissimilar practices in different traditions. In popular usage, the word "meditation" and the phrase "meditative practice" are often used imprecisely to designate practices found across many cultures. InClaudio Naranjo noted that "The word 'meditation' has been used to designate a variety of practices that differ enough from one another so that we may find trouble in defining what meditation is.
Dictionaries give both the original Latin meaning of "think[ing] deeply about something ";  as well as the popular usage of " focusing one's mind for a period of time",  "the act of giving your attention to only one thing, either as a religious activity or as a way of becoming calm and relaxed",  and "to engage in mental exercise such as concentrating on one's breathing or repetition of a mantra for the purpose of reaching a heightened level of spiritual awareness.
Meditações de Marco Aurélio
In modern psychological research, meditation has been defined and characterized in a variety of ways. Many of these emphasize the role of attention     and characterize the practice of meditation as attempts to get beyond the reflexive, "discursive thinking" [note 1] or "logic" [note 2] mind [note 3] to achieve a deeper, more devout, or more relaxed state.
Bond et al. Several other definitions of meditation have been used by influential modern reviews of research on meditation across multiple traditions: [note 7]. Some of the difficulty in precisely defining meditation has been in recognizing the particularities of the many various traditions;  and theories and practice can differ within a tradition. In the West, meditation techniques have sometimes been thought of in two broad categories: focused or concentrative meditation and open monitoring or mindfulness meditation.
Direction of mental attention A practitioner can focus intensively on one particular object so-called concentrative meditationon all mental events that enter the field of awareness so-called mindfulness meditationor both specific focal points and the field of awareness. Open monitoring methods include mindfulnessshikantaza and other awareness states.
Practices using both methods    include vipassana which uses anapanasati as a preparationand samatha calm-abiding. In "No thought" methods, " the practitioner is fully alert, aware, and in control of their faculties but does not experience any unwanted thought activity.
One proposal is that transcendental meditation and possibly other techniques be grouped as an "automatic self-transcending" set of techniques. The Transcendental Meditation technique recommends practice of 20 minutes twice per day. Asanas and positions such as the full-lotushalf-lotusBurmeseSeizaand kneeling positions are popular in Buddhism, Jainism and Hinduism,  although other postures such as sitting, supine lyingand standing are also used.
Meditation is also sometimes done while walking, known as kinhinwhile doing a simple task mindfully, known as samu or while lying down known as savasana. Some religions have traditions of using prayer beads as tools in devotional meditation. The Hindu japa mala has beads the figure in itself having spiritual significanceas well as those used in Gaudiya Vaishnavismthe Hare Krishna traditionJainism and Buddhist prayer beads.
The Buddhist literature has many stories of Enlightenment being attained through disciples being struck by their masters. According to T. Griffith Foulk, the encouragement stick was an integral part of the Zen practice:. In the Rinzai monastery where I trained in the mids, according to an unspoken etiquette, monks who were sitting earnestly and well were shown respect by being hit vigorously and often; those known as laggards were ignored by the hall monitor or given little taps if they requested to be hit.
Nobody asked about the 'meaning' of the stick, nobody explained, and nobody ever complained about its use. Richard Davidson has expressed the view that having a narrative can help maintenance of daily practice. There are many schools and styles of meditation within Hinduism.Account Options Sign in.
Top charts. New releases. Add to Wishlist. Translate the description back to Portuguese Brazil Translate. Aprenda a meditar! Aprenda a meditar com o app! Venha aprender a meditar para controlar ansiedade e diminuir estresse. Acesso a mais de 1. Master Satyanatha and the Living Meditation guide you on a journey that helps you sleep well, relax, develop concentration and the ability to deal with stress, control anxiety and depression through guided meditation.
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All meditations adopt the structured, easy-to-beginner Natha technique, but there are also meditations for the more experienced, aimed at increasing self-awareness. Want to sleep well, relieve stress, improve your concentration, decrease anxiety, combat depression, relax, improve your self-esteem, focus and balance? Learn to meditate with the app! Living Meditation also features specially formulated meditations for children of all ages, stimulating guided meditation practice in their daily lives and introducing its benefits to little ones.
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News Vivo Meditation has a new look, the interface has been redesigned and the meditations reorganized to make them easier to find. Whether to relieve stress, sleep, fight depression, control anxiety, breathe and relax, take care of mental health, self-esteem, seek calm and balance, beginner meditation or easy meditation for children, learn to meditate with Living Meditation. Reviews Review Policy.
This meditation guides When anger is held in mindfulness, it can energize us to respond wisely to This meditation begins with us standing in mindful movement, guiding us in awakening awareness This meditation guides us in bringing the mindfulness and self-compassion of RAIN to a Letting go means releasing the resistance we have to experiencing the present moment. This practice begins with a full body scan and then guides us to return We have within us the wisdom and compassion that can carry us through the This meditation guides us in embodying loving presence through a body scan, and then This classic Buddhist meditation trains us to wake up out of thoughts and to This short meditation guides us in engaging with challenging emotions with presence and compassion In this meditation we are guided to discover the space and aliveness that fills Our experience includes a foreground of changing experience — sounds, sensations, feelings, thoughts.
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Meanwhile, in Geneva, at the Salon International de la Haute Horlogeriepanel discussions brought questions of ethical and sustainable sourcing of diamonds and gold out into the open.
Speakers debated the industry's self-regulation through globally recognised standards that govern both the supply chain and production, to protect the human and environmental factors that underpin the watch industry.
Whereas the majority of fashion houses have understood the importance of including environmental issues in their marketing strategy, it's still rare for fine watch brands to communicate on the subject beyond the ocean conservation programmes they support through ambassadors and their links to the marine world.
This will likely change as watchmakers respond to increased consumer demand for transparency and traceability, along with expectations for businesses to demonstrate environmental and ethical responsibility. Fondation Haute Horlogerie. Subscrever: Enviar feedback Atom. Saiba mais aqui. Law, Lisbon University. Journalist since Twenty years with the Portuguese News Agency.
First Portuguese correspondent in Beijing Member of several international organizations on Time studies, expert on Time and Time Measurement history for the Portuguese Government.
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